The amount of compensatory sweating depends on the patient, the damage that the white rami communicans incurs, and the amount of cell body reorganization in the spinal cord after surgery.
Other potential complications include inadequate resection of the ganglia, gustatory sweating, pneumothorax, cardiac dysfunction, post-operative pain, and finally Horner’s syndrome secondary to resection of the stellate ganglion.

After severing the cervical sympathetic trunk, the cells of the cervical sympathetic ganglion undergo transneuronic degeneration
After severing the sympathetic trunk, the cells of its origin undergo complete disintegration within a year.

Spinal cord infarction occurring during thoraco-lumbar sympathectomy
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1963;26:418-421 doi:10.1136/jnnp.26.5.418

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

sympathectomy created imbalance of autonomic activity and functional changes of the intrathoracic organs

Surgical thoracic sympathectomy such as ESD (endoscopic thoracic sympathectic denervation) or heart transplantation can result in an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities and result in functional changes
in the intrathoracic organs.
Therefore, the procedures affecting sympathetic nerve functions, such as epidural anesthesia, ESD, and heart transplantation, may cause an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activities (1, 6, 16, 17). Recently, it has been reported that ESD results in functional changes of the intrathoracic organs.

In conclusion, our study demonstrated that ESD adversely affected lung function early after surgery and the BHR was affected by an imbalance of autonomic activity created by bilateral ESD in patients with primary focal hyperhidrosis.
Journal of Asthma, 46:276–279, 2009

Monday, September 12, 2011

important relationship among cognitive performance, HRV, and prefrontal neural function

These findings in total suggest an important relationship among cognitive performance, HRV, and prefrontal neural function that has important implications for both physical and mental health. Future studies are needed to determine exactly which executive functions are associated with individual differences in HRV in a wider range of situations and populations.

Low HRV is a risk factor for pathophysiology and psychopathology

The intimate connection between the brain and the heart was enunciated by Claude Bernard over 150 years ago. In our neurovisceral integration model we have tried to build on this pioneering work. In the present paper we further elaborate our model. Specifically we review recent neuroanatomical studies that implicate inhibitory GABAergic pathways from the prefrontal cortex to the amygdala and additional inhibitory pathways between the amygdala and the sympathetic and parasympathetic medullary output neurons that modulate heart rate and thus heart rate variability. We propose that the default response to uncertainty is the threat response and may be related to the well known negativity bias. We next review the evidence on the role of vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) in the regulation of physiological, affective, and cognitive processes. Low HRV is a risk factor for pathophysiology and psychopathology. Finally we review recent work on the genetics of HRV and suggest that low HRV may be an endophenotype for a broad range of dysfunctions.

Sunday, September 11, 2011

Fundamentals of psychoneuroimmunology

The long-held concept that the nervous, endocrine and immune systems are separate entities has given way to a new understanding of human biology. Psychoneuroimmunology addresses the realisation that the neural, immune, and endocrine systems are inextricably linked and that the effects of each affect all-the systems work together as a complicated set of triggers and balances, an intertwining of the physiological and emotional states. Beginning with the fundamentals of immune and neuroendocrine function, Fundamentals of Psychoneuroimmunology explores the complexities of behavioural assessment, the basic types of immunity, the importance of immune cell redistribution in the response to challenges such as infection and stress, and the multifaceted roles of nerves, hormones and cytokines.