The amount of compensatory sweating depends on the patient, the damage that the white rami communicans incurs, and the amount of cell body reorganization in the spinal cord after surgery.
Other potential complications include inadequate resection of the ganglia, gustatory sweating, pneumothorax, cardiac dysfunction, post-operative pain, and finally Horner’s syndrome secondary to resection of the stellate ganglion.

After severing the cervical sympathetic trunk, the cells of the cervical sympathetic ganglion undergo transneuronic degeneration
After severing the sympathetic trunk, the cells of its origin undergo complete disintegration within a year.

Spinal cord infarction occurring during thoraco-lumbar sympathectomy
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1963;26:418-421 doi:10.1136/jnnp.26.5.418

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Evidence based medicine is broken | The BMJ

"How many people care that the research pond is polluted,5 with fraud, sham diagnosis, short term data, poor regulation, surrogate ends, questionnaires that can’t be validated, and statistically significant but clinically irrelevant outcomes? Medical experts who should be providing oversight are on the take. Even the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the Cochrane Collaboration do not exclude authors with conflicts of interest, who therefore have predetermined agendas.6 7 The current incarnation of EBM is corrupted, let down by academics and regulators alike.8"

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

"sympathectomy, although having varying results, does seem to increase the severity of autoimmune disorders"

Allostasis - a state of imbalance responsible for Autoimmune disorders

In general, enhancing the sympathetic tone decreases both T0-cell and NK cell functions but not the proliferation of splenic B cells (Dowdell and Whitacre, 2000). In contrast, chemical sympathectomy, although having varying results, does seem to increase the severity of autoimmune disorders (Dowdell and Whitacre, 2000)
As far as metabolism, catecholamines promote mobilization of fuel stores at time of stress and act synergistically with glucocorticoids to increased glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipolysis but exert opposing effects of protein catabolism, as noted earlier. One important aspect is regulation of body temperature (Goldsttein and Eisenhofer, 2000) Epinephrine levels are also positively related to serum levels of HDL cholesterol and negatively related to triglycerines. However, perturbing the balance of activity of various mediators or metabolism and body weight regulation can lead to well-known metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity.

At the same time, increased sympathetic activitation and nerephinephrine release is elevated in hypertensive individuals and also higher levels of insulin, and there are indications that insulin further increases sympathetic activity in a vicious cycle (Arauz-Pacheco et al.,1996)

As a result of either local production, cytokines often enter the the circultion and can be detected in plasma samples. Sleep deprivation and psychological stress, such as public speaking, are reported to elevate inflammatory cytokine level in blood (Altemus et al., 2001) Circulting levels of a number of inflammatory cytokines are elevated in relation to viral and other infections and contirbute to the feeling of being sick, as well as sleepiness, wiht both direct and indirect effects on the central nervous system (Arkins et al., 2000; Obal and Kueger, 2000)

Inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes, reflect an allostatic state that consists of at least three principal causes: genetic risk factors, (...) factors that contribute to the development of tolerance of self-antigens (...) and the hormonal mikieu that regulates adaptive immunes responses (Dowdell and Whitacre, 2000)

Allostasis, homeostasis and the costs of physiological adaptation

By Jay SchulkinCambridge University Press, 2004

Allostasis is the process of achieving stability, or homeostasis, through physiological or behavioral change. This can be carried out by means of alteration in HPA axishormones, the autonomic nervous systemcytokines, or a number of other systems, and is generally adaptive in the short term [1]

Sunday, November 30, 2014

"Similar low values are observed in patients with sympathectomy and in patients with tetraplegia"

"Patients with progressive autonomic dysfunction (including diabetes) have little or no increase in plasma noradrenaline and this correlates with their orthostatic intolerance (Bannister, Sever and Gross, 1977). In patients with pure autonomic failure, basal levels of noradrenaline are lower than in normal subjects (Polinsky, 1988). Similar low values are observed in patients with sympathectomy and in patients with tetraplegia. (p.51)

The finger wrinkling response is abolished by upper thoracic sympathectomy. The test is also abnormal in some patients with diabetic autonomic dysfunction, the Guillan-Barre syndrome and other peripheral sympathetic dysfunction in limbs. (p.46)

Other causes of autonomic dysfunction without neurological signs include medications, acute autonomic failure, endocrine disease, surgical sympathectomy . (p.100)

Anhidrosis is the usual effect of destruction of sympathetic supply to the face. However about 35% of patients with sympathetic devervation of the face, acessory fibres (reaching the face through the trigeminal system) become hyperactive and hyperhidrosis occurs, occasionally causing the interesting phenomenon of alternating hyperhidrosis and Horner's Syndrome (Ottomo and Heimburger, 1980). (p.159)

Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System
By David Robertson, Italo Biaggioni
Edition: illustrated
Published by Informa Health Care, 1995
ISBN 3718651467, 9783718651467"

'via Blog this'